Category Archives: Microcontrollers

Twitter Water Sensor Software

Start with the modules programmed, wired and plugged in as described in the last 2 posts. The modules should be communicating and sending the sensor samples. We now need to read the data from the serial port and write a tweet when the sensor indicates a low on DIO4. Before writing and running this code, you will need to have set up a Twitter account and set up an Application. Then follow this account from your main twitter account, enabling mobile messaging if you want to receive a text message when an event occurs.

This is developed on Ubuntu, but using the Perl scripting language that should be portable to other platforms. Use CPAN to install the dependent modules:

  • Device::SerialPort for communications with the XBee
  • Tie::CharArray for splitting a string into a character array
  • Net::Twitter  provides a class to interface with Twitter

Open and read data from the serial port. We convert the received binary string into a character array of the ordinal values for easier processing. Then copy characters read into a processing buffer so we can handle multiple reports coming in a single read or partial reads.

my $port=Device::SerialPort->new("/dev/ttyS0");</pre>
while ($timeout>0)
{
	my ($count,$saw)=$port->read(255); # will read _up to_ 255 chars
	tie my @chars, 'Tie::CharArray::Ord', $saw; 
	for ($i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) {
		push(@buffer, @chars[$i]);
		printf("0x%02x ", @buffer[$i]);
	}

We then run a series of checks on the header information to verify the packet is received correctly. First check the header character for proper framing, or throw away characters until we find the next frame header.

	# check frame header
	if (@buffer[0] != 0x7e) {
		printf("Bad Frame\n");
		shift(@buffer);
		next;
	}

Then verify all the characters expected have been received by checking the packet size.

	# check all chars are now in buffer
	$size = @buffer[2] + @buffer[1] * 0x100;
	printf("Size:     %d\n", $size);
	if ($size > scalar(@buffer) - 4) { next; }

Then verify the contents of the package by running the checksum operation.

	# check checksum
	$sum = 0;
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size ; $i++) {
		$sum += @buffer[$i + 3];
	}
	$sum = 0xff - $sum % 0x100;
	if ($sum != @buffer[$size + 3]) {
		printf("Checksum: FAIL %02x != %02x\n", $sum, @buffer[$size + 3]);
		next;
	} else {
		printf("Checksum: PASS %02x\n", $sum);
	}

If contents are complete and intact, copy message to a packet buffer.

	my @packet;
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size + 4 ; $i++) {
		push(@packet, @buffer[$i]);
	}

If an packet received is an IO sample packet, process the IO message. Then remove this packet from the input buffer.

	if (@buffer[3] == 0x92) {
		ProcessIO(\@packet);
	}
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size + 4; $i++) {shift(@buffer);} 

In the ProcessIO sub routine, extract the packet information. Fetch the device ID of the sending XBee, the 16 bit ID, packet type, and read digital IO 4.

  
sub ProcessIO {
	my @packet = @{(shift)};
	
	my $xbeeid = sprintf("%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x", @packet[4], @packet[5], @packet[6],
		@packet[7], @packet[8], @packet[9], @packet[10], @packet[11]);
	printf("DeviceID: %s\n", $xbeeid);

	printf("Net MyID: %02x%02x\n", @packet[12], @packet[13]);
	
	printf("PackType: %02x\n", @packet[14]);
	
	my $dio4 = (@packet[20] & 0x10) != 0;

Once we have this information, we compare the device ID to verify it is the sensor device we are interested in. Then check if the DIO4 line has been brought low from previously being high since we only want to tweet the first time water is detected, not every second. This code is taken from the sample code in the Net::Twitter documentation. Net::Twitter->new creates and authenticates a connection with Twitter, then ->update posts a tweet. A time stamp is added to the message, otherwise it may be rejected as a duplicate tweet.

 	if ($xbeeid eq $xbee_basement) 	{ 		if (($dio4 == 0) && ($last_water == 1)) 		{ 			printf("DETECTED WATER!!\n"); 			my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
				traits   => [qw/OAuth API::REST WrapError/],
				consumer_key        => $consumer_key,
				consumer_secret     => $consumer_secret,
				access_token        => $token,
				access_token_secret => $token_secret,
			);

			$now_string = strftime "%H:%M", localtime;
			$tweet = sprintf("At %s Basement sensor 4 detected water", $now_string);

			my $result = $nt->update($tweet);
			#print Dumper $result;
		}
		$last_water = $dio4;

Then just run the script from a terminal.
Perl xbee.pl

use Device::SerialPort;
use Tie::CharArray;
use Net::Twitter;
use Data::Dumper;
use POSIX qw(strftime);

 my $port=Device::SerialPort->new("/dev/ttyS0");

 my $STALL_DEFAULT=60; # how many seconds to wait for new input

 my $timeout=$STALL_DEFAULT;

my $consumer_key = "your consumer key";
my $consumer_secret = "your consumer secret";
my $token = "your token";
my $token_secret = "your token secret";
my $xbee_basement = "0013a200400a1896";

 $port->read_char_time(0);     # don't wait for each character
 $port->read_const_time(500); # 1 second per unfulfilled "read" call
 my $last_water = 1;

 sub ProcessIO {
	my @packet = @{(shift)};

	my $xbeeid = sprintf("%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x", @packet[4], @packet[5], @packet[6],
		@packet[7], @packet[8], @packet[9], @packet[10], @packet[11]);
	printf("DeviceID: %s\n", $xbeeid);

	printf("Net MyID: %02x%02x\n", @packet[12], @packet[13]);

	printf("PackType: %02x\n", @packet[14]);

	my $dio4 = (@packet[20] & 0x10) != 0;

	if ((@packet[16] & 0x04) != 0) { printf("DIO10:   %d\n", (@packet[19] & 0x04) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[16] & 0x08) != 0) { printf("DIO11:   %d\n", (@packet[19] & 0x08) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[16] & 0x10) != 0) { printf("DIO12:   %d\n", (@packet[19] & 0x10) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x01) != 0) { printf("DIO0:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x01) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x02) != 0) { printf("DIO1:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x02) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x04) != 0) { printf("DIO2:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x04) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x08) != 0) { printf("DIO3:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x08) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x10) != 0) { printf("DIO4:    %d\n", $dio4); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x20) != 0) { printf("DIO5:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x20) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x40) != 0) { printf("DIO6:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x40) != 0); }
	if ((@packet[17] & 0x80) != 0) { printf("DIO7:    %d\n", (@packet[20] & 0x80) != 0); }
	$as = 21;
	if ((@packet[18] & 0x01) != 0) { my $val = @packet[$as++] * 0x100 + @packet[$as++]; printf("AD0:    %4x\n", $val); }
	if ((@packet[18] & 0x02) != 0) { my $val = @packet[$as++] * 0x100 + @packet[$as++]; my $cval = $val * 100.0 / 0x3ff; printf("AD1:    %4x %4.1fC %4.1fF\n", $val, $cval, $cval * 9 / 5 + 32); }
	if ((@packet[18] & 0x04) != 0) { my $val = @packet[$as++] * 0x100 + @packet[$as++]; printf("AD2:    %4x\n", $val); }
	if ((@packet[18] & 0x08) != 0) { my $val = @packet[$as++] * 0x100 + @packet[$as++]; printf("AD3:    %4x\n", $val); }
	if ((@packet[18] & 0x80) != 0) { my $val = @packet[$as++] * 0x100 + @packet[$as++]; printf("VSS:    %4x\n", $val); }

	if ($xbeeid eq $xbee_basement)
	{
		if (($dio4 == 0) && ($last_water == 1))
		{
			printf("DETECTED WATER!!\n");
			my $nt = Net::Twitter->new(
				traits   => [qw/OAuth API::REST WrapError/],
				consumer_key        => $consumer_key,
				consumer_secret     => $consumer_secret,
				access_token        => $token,
				access_token_secret => $token_secret,
			);

			$now_string = strftime "%H:%M", localtime;
			$tweet = sprintf("At %s Basement sensor 4 detected water", $now_string);

			my $result = $nt->update($tweet);
			#print Dumper $result;
		}
		$last_water = $dio4;
	}
 }

 my @buffer;
 while ($timeout>0)
 {
	my ($count,$saw)=$port->read(255); # will read _up to_ 255 chars
	tie my @chars, 'Tie::CharArray::Ord', $saw;
	for ($i = 0; $i < $count; $i++) { 		push(@buffer, @chars[$i]); 		printf("0x%02x ", @buffer[$i]); 	} 	if ($count > 0) { printf("\n"); }

	if (scalar(@buffer) == 0) { next; }

	# check frame header
	if (@buffer[0] != 0x7e) {
		printf("Bad Frame\n");
		shift(@buffer);
		next;
	}

	# check all chars are now in buffer
	$size = @buffer[2] + @buffer[1] * 0x100;
	printf("Size:     %d\n", $size);
	if ($size > scalar(@buffer) - 4) { next; }

	# check checksum
	$sum = 0;
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size ; $i++) {
		$sum += @buffer[$i + 3];
	}
	$sum = 0xff - $sum % 0x100;
	if ($sum != @buffer[$size + 3]) {
		printf("Checksum: FAIL %02x != %02x\n", $sum, @buffer[$size + 3]);
		next;
	} else {
		printf("Checksum: PASS %02x\n", $sum);
	}

	my @packet;
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size + 4 ; $i++) {
		push(@packet, @buffer[$i]);
	}

	printf("Command:  %02x\n", @buffer[3]);
	if (@buffer[3] == 0x92) {
		ProcessIO(\@packet);
	}

	# Check here to see if what we want is in the $buffer
	# say "last" if we find it
	for ($i = 0; $i < $size + 4; $i++) {shift(@buffer);}
	$timeout = $STALL_DEFAULT;
}

 if ($timeout==0) {
        die "Waited $STALL_DEFAULT seconds and never saw what I wanted\n";
 }

Twitter Water Sensor Hardware

Receiver Hardware

For the receiving module connected to the PC, we will just use the XBIB development board since it already has the serial interface that we need.

Transmitter Hardware

The end device module only needs a few pins to be wired up for power and the sensor input. For the power provide a 3.3V power supply to pin 1 and GND to pin 10.

Here a LM1117 voltage regulator was used to step down from a 5V A/C adapter. The other component shown is a temperature sensor LM35 attached to ADC1 analog input.

Makeshift Water Sensor

For the sensor, we will simply use two wires attached to bolts. One wire tied to DIO4 as the sensor input, that has an internal pull-up resistor. The second wire connected to GND. The bolts are placed on the floor near each other, but not touching. When water touches them both, it will make a circuit connection pulling the input low.

Twitter Water Sensor Wireless

The detector will be placed in the basement while an internet connected computer upstairs will be used to send the tweet. A pair of XBee wireless modules are used to communicate between the basement and computer.

Configuring the modules

X-CTU configuration interface

Download the X-CTU software from the digi.com website and use the XBIB development board, program and configure the modules.

For the PC connected module, select the Coordinator API firmware. Restore defaults settings. Set a PAN to ensure the sensor device pairs with this PC receiver module if running multiple networks. Check the box to Always Update Firmware and write the changes. Once programmed, remove module and insert the second device.

Select the End Device API firmware for the sensor module. Set the PAN to the same as the as the coordinator module. We will attach the sensor directly to the module inputs, so we configure the module to poll the input periodically and send the data to the coordinator. Set the DIO4 Configuration to be a Digital Input. Then under the I/O Sampling group, set the sample period IR to 0x1388 for a 5 second update rate. Write this firmware and settings to the module.

The modules are now programmed to read DIO4 from the end device module every 5 seconds and send that to the coordinator module.

Parsing Misterhouse Serial Data

The sensors transmit data in the form “Address,Port,Value” A typical input would be “A1,T1,30.0″ for module 1, temperature sensor 1, and 30 deg C.

In this case only temp data is read by this. split is used to segment the three elements, the temperature is converted to Fahrenheit, and the result stored in a hash.

$xbee_serial = new Serial_Item(undef, undef, 'serial1');
if (my $data = said $xbee_serial)
{
	my @values = split(',', $data);
	my $temp = $values[2] * 9 / 5 + 32;
	$xbee_data{ $values[0].$values[1] } = $temp;
}